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Ethics and Critical Thinking in Conservation
Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Browse by Genre Available eBooks Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Heritage is broadly categorized into two main divisions:- Cultural Heritage refers to the cultural aspects like heritage sites, monuments, folklore, traditional activities and practices, language etc. It gives people a connection to certain social values,beliefs,religions and customs.
It allows them to identify with others of similar mindsets and backgrounds. Cultural heritage can provide an automatic sense of unity and belonging within a group and allows us to better understand previous generations and the history of where we come from.
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What is Cultural Heritage? Cultural Heritage is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions and values. For example traditional music, folklore, language etc. For example monuments, mosques, shrines, monasteries etc.
Built heritage should be deemed to mean those buildings, artifacts, structures, areas and precincts that are of historic, aesthetic,architectural or cultural significance and should include natural features within such areas or precincts of environmental significance or scenic beauty such as sacred groves, hills, hillocks, water bodies and the areas adjoining the same , open areas, wooded areas, etc. On a daily basis we are reminded of historic events and past lives through the built legacy around us.
An artifact is an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may have a cultural interest.
5 Reasons why we should Preserve Heritage Sites
Examples include dance forms,food,stone tools, documents,paintings,pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such asbuttons, jewelry and clothing etc. Understanding the Significance of Cultural Heritage There are 4 main aspects to understand the significance of cultural heritage sites. These aspects help to determine the management policies and procedure pursuant to the particular site.
Thus It is very important to understand and determine the significances before embarking on a heritage project. The four Main aspects are:- Historical Significances The age or relationship to historical era, person or event. Historical significance is a relatively easy and over bearing trait in heritage management. Social Significances Social Significance is hard to ascertain. It refers to the social, spiritual and other community oriented values attributed to a place.
This maybe because the place has existed to serve a certain important role in the society for a period of time. Aesthetic Significance It refers to this special sense of Importance of a place. This could be in terms of architecture, scale or even the designs seen on the place.
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Scientific Significance It refers to the scope or possibility of scientific findings from a site, monument or place. Here the importance lies more in the information that may yield out of understanding and researching the place or site. In other words, the degradation of the construction materials is a process that develops naturally with time, and can be accelerated by chemical, physical or biological actions. For this reason, several researches were conducted all over the world to assess the existing conditions of heritage buildings.
For instance, A Ghafar Ahmad et al. The research found that most of the defects that occur in heritage buildings in Malaysia were at external walls followed by internal walls and etc. The findings indicated that the practice of conserving the old shophouses is still not effective. A more effective measure in preserving the old shophouses needs to be undertaken.
In addition, Itma M. He found that heritage buildings of the old city of Nablus, Palestine, suffer from many random preservation. Although defects of heritage buildings can result from the degradation of the construction materials or from the damage of the heritage building elements due to mechanical actions. However, there is another risk which threatens the sustainability of the heritage buildings.
When inhabitants live in the heritage buildings, their houses are well maintained; some continue to be in excellent conditions and are properly cared for. If inhabitants stay in their heritage houses, they surely perform maintenance works periodically.
In contrast, if they abandon their heritage houses, it will lose its vitality. This occurred in many heritage cities in the world. For example, many people moved away from the neighbourhood of Le Village in Cornwall, Ontario in Canada and sold their homes to investors who rented them out, when the textile mills in the area shut their doors. To resolve this problem, Friedman et al. Another example occurred in China, when many younger and richer residents have moved from the old city of Yangzhou to the new city areas due to the deteriorating physical conditions of the heritage buildings. To make people return back to the old city of Yangzhou, Longbin developed a detailed design guideline for the whole old city Yangzhou in China.
Like these events occurred also in the old city of Ghadames, Libya when the inhabitants moved out of their heritage houses of the old city to modern city in the early s. Since then, the United Nations Development Programme UNDP has carried out a project on the old city of Ghadames its objective was to encourage and motivate the inhabitants to come back to the old city. Even though the project maintained source of water Ain Al-Faras , restored some heritage buildings and repaired streets.
However, right now the inhabitants have not come back to the old city yet. Based on the above, assessment of the overall structural integrity of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya is very important before developing the conservation guidelines for heritage buildings in the old city.
Furthermore, there is a significant lack of researches conducted on the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames in spite of its heritage importance. Even though few studies were done on the old city and the modern city of Ghadames. However, none of them assessed the overall structural integrity of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames.
Additionally, none of them attempted to develop conservation guidelines to protect the heritage buildings of the old city. Some of research studies were carried out by Chojnacki, ; Elwefati, ; and Nura S. Besides that there is a lack of expertise and specific conservation guidelines for heritage buildings in the old city of Ghadames resulted of dilemma in the management of the municipality to preserve the heritage buildings.
The level of understanding of the heritage buildings in Libya still remains low. Without any documentation the beauty of the heritage buildings will be lost due to age factor and climate change. Lack of expertise in the maintenance of heritage buildings is also a source of beautiful heritage buildings are damaged or destroyed.
There is a lack of technical knowledge to repair and maintain heritage buildings in the old city of Ghadames. Since late s, several studies on the conservation of heritage building of the old city of Ghadames have been undertaken with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme UNDP and specialized UN agencies and other private or government entities. However, none of these studies have led to any concrete steps or conservation of heritage buildings of the old city in translating the plans into specific actions UNDP Report, So far, no guideline on conservation guidelines for preserving heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames has been developed in spite of its importance to protect heritage buildings Arrabti, ; Al-Hasi, This was confirmed by Azzuz where the researcher has confirmed non-existence of any guidelines to maintain and enhance the character and integrity of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames.
Based on the discussion above, the main problem of this research results from the lack of: 1 Studies conducted on conservation of heritage buildings in Libya, 2 expertise and specific guidelines for heritage buildings in the old city of Ghadames, and 3 a suitable system in force for discovering and recording the heritage buildings in Libya. Therefore, the current research aims at identifying problems encountered in the heritage buildings in the old city of Ghadames, and suggests some conservation guidelines and references for the conservation of heritage buildings in the old city and which are all gazetted as national heritage buildings.
Policies and guidelines to be provided are generally and specifically on an analysis of the heritage buildings. Based on the research problem statements, the research questions mainly focus on the following areas:. Is there any structural damage in the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya? How to repair and maintain the structural damages of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya? Is there any conservation guidelines on heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya? The main thesis objective is to assess the overall structural integrity of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames as well as provide and develop conservation procedures and guidelines for repairing and conserving heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site.
The objectives of this research are:. To assess the overall structural integrity of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya. To provide conservation procedures for repairing and maintaining the structural damages of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya. To develop the conservation guidelines and policy for the improvement and conservation of the heritage buildings of the old city of Ghadames, world heritage site, Libya.
Conservation of heritage sites includes generally, buildings, artefacts, structures, areas and precincts of historic, aesthetic, architectural, cultural or environmentally significant nature heritage buildings and heritage precincts , natural feature areas of environmental significance or the sites of scenic beauty. The research does not discuss heritage in general, but mainly focuses on the built environment.