The new body consists both of members of the old parliament as well as nominated members. As of December , the legislature had the following composition. In May the elections for the Constituent Assembly saw the Communist Party of Nepal as the largest party in the Constituent Assembly , which will have a term of two years. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; the other judges were appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.
Nepal's judiciary is legally separate from the executive and legislative and has increasingly shown the will to be independent of political influence. The judiciary has the right of judicial review under the constitution. Jonathan Devendra. New York: Hyperion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated.
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Categories : Politics of Nepal. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February All Wikipedia articles in need of updating Use dmy dates from April Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references. Namespaces Article Talk. The high-intensity more than 1, deaths per year conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal Maoist rebels and the government forces led by the Royal Nepalese Army has affected the health, education, and other rights of the most vulnerable members of society, especially women and children [ 2 ].
An Essay on the Role of Media
The conflict, which began in , has resulted in widespread human rights violations by both parties as it draws the population into the conflict as both soldiers and victims. In this article we examine the evidence on the current state of child health and human rights in Nepal Box 1. We argue that time is running out for the children of Nepal, as they face an uncertain future if their health and human rights concerns are not addressed by local governments, nongovernmental organizations NGOs , and the international community in a timely manner.
We also suggest possible solutions to the current problem. This index, which has a score of 0 to 1, gives a measure of longevity, health, education level, and standard of living. Nepal's HDI was 0. The armed conflict has eroded the tenuous gains in key development indicators [ 4 ]. The Nepal Demographic and Health Survey of found an infant mortality rate of 64 per 1, live births and a neonatal mortality rate of 39 per 1, live births [ 6 ]. There are widespread disparities in health services, life expectancies, education, and income between urban areas like the capital Kathmandu and the district headquarters on one side and the majority rural areas on the other.
The under-5 mortality rate in urban areas is The maternal mortality rate is one of the highest in the world at per , live births [ 5 ]. Women face a one in 24 risk of dying during pregnancy and childbirth, and current levels of insecurity are increasing this risk further, as the conflict is hindering pregnant women from reaching hospitals for delivery [ 6 , 7 ].
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One out of every 11 children in Nepal dies before reaching the age of five [ 6 ], and almost 70, children die yearly from preventable causes. One in two children is stunted or underweight, with little improvement in this situation since the s [ 6 ]. A recent study estimated around 30, annual deaths due to diarrheal diseases in the country [ 8 ]. Only one in four children in Nepal sees a health provider for illnesses [ 6 ].
Children are particularly vulnerable, because they are less likely to be taken long distances to health centers. The Royal Nepalese Army controls the capital, Kathmandu, and the 75 district centers in the country, while many areas surrounding the district centers and rural areas are under Maoist control [ 10 ]. Families may be subjected to harassment if they attempt to leave or enter the Maoists' heartlands.
fensterstudio.ru/components/zinesemyg/depu-programa-espio-para.php A transport shutdown by the Maoist rebels in March held up the supply of vaccines, vitamin A, and de-worming drugs to nearly 3. Annually, some 12, children in Nepal would succumb to diseases without these essential medicines [ 10 ]. The delivery of health services has been disrupted in the far western regions and severely restricted in other parts of the country [ 11 , 12 ]. Several community health posts have been destroyed and dozens of health-care workers have lost their lives.
The Maoists destroyed the electrical supply of Okhaldhunga Hospital, a small hospital in remote eastern Nepal, in an attempt to harm a nearby army camp that got its electrical supply from the same power plant. As a result, operations such as caesarean sections were being performed under torchlight Figure 1. Health education programs conducted by the district public health offices and other private organizations are on the decline due to Maoist and government threats.
The conflict has had a variable impact on coverage of primary-care posts in rural areas. In some Maoist-controlled areas, health post staff are threatened with reprisals if they do not stay at their posts. The government's directive that health professionals who provide treatment for injuries without appropriate notification can be prosecuted as supporters of terrorism has created a difficult scenario for health workers, who risk incarceration [ 13 ]. In April , several physicians in Kathmandu were detained for taking part in peaceful demonstrations and two foreign physicians were deported for treating victims of the violence [ 14 ].
Although there is no study establishing a conclusive link between the conflict and mental disorders, a recent cross-sectional survey of internally displaced people in Nepal found high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder Psychiatrists and mental health hospitals have seen an increase in the number of patients in recent years Okhaldhunga Community Hospital Public Health Unit, unpublished data.
Data from Okhaldhunga Hospital in showed a general downward trend in attendance, probably due to transportation problems caused by the conflict, but an increase in consultations for mental disorders Okhaldhunga Community Hospital Public Health Unit, unpublished data.
Within this situation of uncertainty and conflict, hundreds of children raise themselves, due to the loss of their parents and relatives [ 16 ]. There is a general lack of hope, especially among the youth. Some of them have left the countryside. Others have joined the insurgents or developed reliance on drugs and alcohol [ 15 ]. Children face food insecurities due to frequent blockades and cutbacks in local food production caused by the exodus of merchants from rural areas, lack of access to markets, and the displacement of able members of some households [ 18 ].
This food insecurity is not evident in Kathmandu, but is clear in the rural areas. The malnutrition situation is particularly serious in many parts of the midwestern region, which are badly affected by the conflict, with Humla district having the highest rate of malnourishment in the country [ 20 ]. The conflict has also deprived Nepalese children of education. Prior to the conflict, access to education in Nepal was extremely limited for girls, members of the lower castes, and other disadvantaged groups [ 22 ].
Currently one out of every five children aged six to ten does not attend school [ 23 ]. Nearly private schools have closed down since Even in districts where schools are open, the continuing series of strikes and blockades has reduced the time children can go to school [ 22 ]. Schools in rural areas are under-attended by students and teachers due to fear, insecurity, and displacement [ 18 ]. Schools have been bombed and attacked [ 18 ]. Mines have been placed in and around schools and playgrounds [ 22 ].
Schools have been used as grounds for child recruitment and abduction of teachers, or turned into barracks and used for political meetings [ 18 ]. The reality of the situation is unclear, as many have been trafficked to India for sex work [ 24 , 25 ]. A study by General Welfare Pratishthan, an NGO working on the prevention of HIV and STDs, postulated that the current conflict may have pushed a large number of young girls from rural villages to urban areas in search of food, shelter, and security who later end up involved in prostitution for subsistence [ 26 ].
Relative poverty is defined by the general standards of living in different societies and what is culturally defined as being poor rather than some absolute level of deprivation. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. The similar differences can be seen in terms of ecological zones as well. Similarly, lower caste people are found to be desperately poor, whereas, higher caste people get more share of income distribution. Untouchables, socially excluded indigenous communities and women suffer more from poverty in comparison to others.
Recent statistics show that the incidence of poverty has been decreasing in Nepal, but the pace is desperately slow. Nepal has made progress in raising living standards over the last fifty years, particularly since the s. On the other hand, the burgeoning gap between the haves and have-nots is another major threat to poverty reduction approaches in Nepal. Poverty is a political issue and it can not be solved by technocrats and professional consultants. If the state is not ready to see poverty as a violation of human rights, the aim of poverty alleviation will remain a distant dream for many years.
And, as a matter of fact, this ill-perception is one of the major causes of poverty in Nepal. Only a few percentage of people hold large size of land in Nepal, but large size of people hold small size of land. The land fragmentation is a rapid phenomenon and exploitation of the workers is also intense. However, majority of the people have continued the traditional way of agriculture instead of adopting modern and scientific way.